The soil is an important natural renewable resource that for a long period of time is subject to erosion and intensive exploitation, which leads to the loss of fertile qualities. But with a reasonable technology of cultivation and periodic soil enrichment with the necessary elements, it is possible to maintain soil health. The soil provides environmental conditions for numerous microorganisms and serves as a medium for the growth of plants, thus providing plants with a place for development, nutrients, and water to support growth. Soil also serves as a universal filter for all types of polluting substances, cleans groundwater and is the main carbon reserve in the universe.The role of soils in maintaining ecological/human health and ensuring food security makes it an important and basic natural resource.
Soil science helps us to develop and understand how soils behave under different conditions, their influence on physical factors for growth, and then through the decomposition of biomass. Soil science also provides basic knowledge of soil formation, morphological, physicochemical and biological features of soils, classification of soils and the role of soils in ensuring and maintaining the ecosystem and food security.
Throughout the history of the Earth, the natural cycle of nutrients comes from soils to plants and animals, and then, through the decomposition of biomass. This helps maintain the essential nutrients needed for plant growth in the soil. Complex cycles of substances include a number of physical, chemical and, most importantly, biological processes. Although the soil is often called a "fertile substrate," not all soils are suitable for growing crops. Ideal soils for agriculture should be balanced and contain:
- mineral components (sand: 0.05-2 mm, silt: 0.002-0.05 mm, clay <0.002 mm)
- soil organic matter
- air and water
A balanced composition of these components allows you to keep the necessary moisture, oxygen in the root zone, nutrients for plant growth and provides physical support for plants. Each of these factors plays a direct or indirect role in influencing the suitability of the soil for agriculture.
Implementation techniques better agricultural development, soil erosion rate may be reduced to about equal to the rate of soil playback. In addition to soil erosion, intensive land use has led to water shortage and the rapid desertification of huge areas, which today is a common problem for all farms.